MAJOR DAMS AND RESERVOIRS OF INDIA

MAJOR DAMS AND RESERVOIRS OF INDIA


    India is country with some of the great rivers like Ganga, Narmada, Brahmputra, etc. These rivers are having some of the big dams and largest reservoirs on them like Bhakra dam, Sardar Sarovar dam, Hirakund dam, etc.

    The salient features of some of the important dams of India are given below:

     

    1) BHAKRA DAM:


    LOCATION

    Across river Sutlej at the foot of Shivalik Hills in Himachal pradesh.

    TYPE

    Straight gravity, concrete dam

    LENGTH

    518m

    MAX. HEIGHT

    226m

    RESERVOIR

    Gross storage: 9867.8 Mm³

    Live storage: 7770.9 Mm³

    SPILLWAY

    Ogee overflow spillway(Gated - 4 Radial gates)

    BENEFITS

    Irrigation 1.48 M.ha (in Haryana, Punjab and Rajasthan)

    Power:-

    Left bank 5 units of 90 MW each,

    Right bank 5 units of 120 MW each,

    Installed capacity of 1204 MW



     

    Location: Across river Sutlej at the foot of Shivalik Hills in Himachal pradesh.

    Type: Straight gravity, concrete dam

    Length: 518m

    Max. height: 226m

    Reservoir: Gross storage: 9867.8 Mm³

    Live storage: 7770.9 Mm³

    Spillway: Ogee overflow spillway (Gated - 4 Radial gates )

    Benefits:

    Irrigation 1.48 M.ha (in Haryana, Punjab and Rajasthan)

    Power:-

    Left bank 5 units of 90 MW each,

    Right bank 5 units of 120 MW each,

    Installed capacity of 1204 MW

     

    2) HIRAKUD DAM:

    LOCATION

    Across river Mahanadi 15 km from Sambalpur in Orissa

    TYPE

    Composite dam (earth, masonry and concrete dam)

    Bed Rock: Hard Granite Gneiss

    LENGTH

    Main dam :- 4800 m,

    Earthen dykes:- 25800 m

    Total Length:- 25.79km

    HEIGHT

    60.96m

    RESERVOIR

    Full Reservoir Level: R.L.192.04m

    Maximum Water Level: R.L.192.04m

    Dead Storage Level: R.L.179.83m

    Gross storage: 5896 Mm³

    Live storage: 4823 Mm³

    SPILLWAY

    Ogee (overflow) spillway (Gated - 34 radial gates)

    Ski-jump Bucket

    No. of Sluices - 64

    BENEFITS

    (i) Irrigation : 235477 ha

    (ii) Power: 

    Hydraulic Head: 26.517m

    Maximum Discharge: 42,000 cusecs

    Capacity: 259.5MW

    (iii) Flood control


    Location: Across river Mahanadi 15 km from Sambalpur in Orissa.

    Type: Composite dam (earth, masonry and concrete dam)

    Length: 

    Main dam :- 4800 m,

    Earthen dykes:- 25800 m

    Height: 60.96 m

    Reservoir:

    Gross storage: 5896 Mm³

    Live storage: 4823 Mm³

    Spillway: Ogee (overflow) spillway (Gated - 34 radial gates)

    Benefits:

    (i) Irrigation : 235477 ha

    (ii) Power: Installed Capacity is 259.5 MW

    (iii) Flood control

     

    3) UKAI DAM:

    LOCATION

    This dam is located near village Ukai at fort Songarth, district Surat and Tapi district. It is constructed across rive Tapi. It is the largest reservoir in Gujarat.

    TYPE

    Earth-cum masonry dam

    LENGTH

    Embankment wall is 4927 m long

    HEIGHT

    80.77m

    RESERVOIR

    Gross storage: 7414.29 Mm³

    Live storage: 6729.89 Mm³


     

    SPILLWAY

    Gated ogee with ski-jump (22 Radial gates)

    BENEFITS

    i) Irrigation and flood control

    ii) Hydropower :

    Installed capacity: 300 MW

    4 units of 75 MW each

     

    Location:

    This dam is located near village Ukai at fort Songarth, district Surat and Tapi district. It is constructed across rive Tapi. It is the largest reservoir in Gujarat.

    Type: Earth-cum masonry dam

    Length: Embankment wall is 4927 m long

    Height: 80.77 m

    Reservoir: Gross storage: 7414.29 Mm³

    Live storage: 6729.89 Mm³

    Spillway: Gated ogee with ski-jump (22 Radial gates)

    Benefits:

    i) Irrigation and flood control

    ii) Hydropower :

    Installed capacity: 300 MW

    4 units of 75 MW each

     

    4) SARDAR SAROVAR DAM:

    LOCATION

    It is located near village Navagam district Rajpipala in Gujart. It is constructed on Narmada river. It is the largest dam and part of the Narmada Valley Project.

    TYPE

    Concrete, gravity dam (second largest concrete gravity dam by volume after Grand Coulee Dam in US).

    LENGTH

    1210m

    HEIGHT

    163m

    RESERVOIR

    Total capacity - 7,701,775 acre-ft/9,500 Mm³

    Active capacity - 4,702,137 acre-ft/ 5,800 Mm³

    SPILLWAY

    Ogee spillway

    BENEFITS

    Multi-purpose project

    Irrigation 1.79 Mha of land in areas of Kutch and Saurashtra in Gujarat, 75000 ha land in the arid districts of Barmer and Jalore of Rajasthan and 37,500 ha land in the hilly tribal region of Maharashtra by lift irrigation. There is provision of 0.131 Mha-m of water for domestic water supply.

    Power: Installed capacity: 1450 MW

    6 units of 200 MW each (River-bed-powerhouse)

    5 units of 50 MW each (Canal head power house)

    Others flood control, water supply, recreation, etc.

     

    Location: It is located near village Navagam district Rajpipala in Gujart. It is constructed on Narmada river. It is the largest dam and part of the Narmada Valley Project.

    Type: Concrete, gravity dam (second largest concrete gravity dam by volume after Grand Coulee Dam in US).

    Length: 1210 m

    Height: 163 m

    Narmada Control Authority gave the final clearance to raise the height from 121.92 m to 138.68m.

    Reservoir: Total capacity - 7,701,775 acre-ft/9,500 Mm³

    Active capacity - 4,702,137 acre-ft/ 5,800 Mm³

    Spillway: Ogee spillway

    Benefits:

    Multi-purpose project

    Irrigation 1.79 Mha of land in areas of Kutch and Saurashtra in Gujarat, 75000 ha land in the arid districts of Barmer and Jalore of Rajasthan and 37,500 ha land in the hilly tribal region of maharashtra by lift irrigation. There is provision of 0.131 Mha-m of water for domestic water supply.

    Power: Installed capacity: 1450 MW

    6 units of 200 MW each (River-bed-powerhouse)

    5 units of 50 MW each (Canal head power house)

    Others flood control, water supply, recreation, etc.

     

    5) IDUKKI DAM:

    LOCATION

    Idukki dam is constructed across the river Periyar at Idukki Kottayam district of Kerala

    TYPE

    Double curvature arch dam in concrete

    LENGTH

    366m

    HEIGHT

    169m

    RESERVOIR

    Gross storage: 2106.8 Mm^3

    Live storage: 1544.5 Mm^3

    SPILLWAY

    There is no spillway at Idukki dam. The excess water is discharged over a spillway on the adjacent Cheruthoni dam.

    BENEFITS

    Power: 6 units of 130 MW each

    Installed capacity 780 MW

     

    Location: Idukki dam is constructed across the river Periyar at Idukki Kottayam district of Kerala.

    Type: Double curvature arch dam in concrete

    Length: 366m

    Height: 169m

    Reservoir:

    Gross storage: 2106.8 M.cu.m.

    Live storage: 1544.5 M.cu.m.

    Spillway:

    There is no spillway at Idukki dam. The excess water is discharged over a spillway on the adjacent Cheruthoni dam.

    Benefits:

    Power: 6 units of 130 MW each

    Installed capacity 780 MW

     

    6) NAGARJUNASAGAR DAM:

    LOCATION

    Across river Krishna near Nandikonda village in Nalgonda district about 144 km from Hyderabad in Andhra pradesh.

    TYPE

    Stone masonry and earthen dam

    LENGTH

    Stone masonry - 978 m, Spillway - 472 m, Earthen - 3415 m

    MAX. HEIGHT

    124m

    RESERVOIR

    Gross storage: 11538.7 Mm^3

    Live storage: 6797 Mm^3

    SPILLWAY

    Ogee spillway (Gated - 26 radial gates)

    BENEFITS

    i) Irrigation : 0.83 Mha

    ii) Power: 1 unit of 110 MW

    7 unit of 100.8 MW 706 pumped storage

    Installed capacity 816 MW

     

    Location:

    Across river Krishna near Nandikonda village in Nalgonda district about 144 km from Hyderabad in Andra pradesh.

    Type: Stone masonry and earthen dam.

    Length : Stone masonry - 978 m, Spillway - 472 m, Earthen - 3415 m

    Height: 124m

    Reservoir:

    Gross storage: 11538.7 M.cu.m.

    Live storage: 6797 M.cu.m.

    Spillway: Ogee spillway (Gated - 26 radial gates)

    Benefits:

    i) Irrigation : 0.83 Mha

    ii) Power: 1 unit of 110 MW

    7 unit of 100.8 MW 706 pumped storage

    Installed capacity 816 MW

     

    7) TEHRI DAM:


    LOCATION

    Tehri dam is located at new Tehri town, Tehri district, Uttarkhand constructed across river Bhagirathi

    TYPE

    Earth and rockfill dam

    LENGTH

    570m

    HEIGHT

    261m

    RESERVOIR

    Gross storage: 3539 Mm³

    Live storage 2615 Mm³

    SPILLWAY

    Open channel chute spillway (Gated - 7 Tainter gates)

    BENEFITS

    Irrigation and Power generation

    Power:

    Installed capacity - 1000 MW

    Max. planned - 2400 MW

     

    Location: Tehri dam is located at new Tehri town, Tehri district, Uttarkhand constructed across river Bhagirathi

    Type: Earth and rockfill dam

    Length: 570 m

    Height: 261m

    Reservoir:

    Gross storage: 3539 Mm³

    Live storage 2615 Mm³

    Spillway: Open channel chute spillway (Gated - 7 Tainter gates)

    Benefits:

    Irrigation and Power generation

    Power:

    Installed capacity - 1000 MW

    Max. planned - 2400 MW



     

    8) KOYNA DAM:

    LOCATION

    Across river Koyna at Deshmukhwadi near Helwak in Satara district of Maharashtra, Dam is about 240 km South of Mumbai

    TYPE

    Rubble concrete dam (Gravity dam)

    LENGTH

    808m

    HEIGHT

    103m

    RESERVOIR

    Gross storage: 2775.33 Mm³

    Live storage: 2676.6 Mm³

    SPILLWAY

    Controlled spillway, Tainter gates

    BENEFITS

    Power generation and some irrigation

    Power:

    Stage 1 - 4 units of 70 MW each

    Stage 2 - 4 units of 75 MW each

    Stage 3 - 4 units of 80 MW each

    Stage 4 - 4 units of 250 MW each

    Foot power house 2 x 20 MW each

    Installed capacity: 1960 MW each

     

    Location: Across river Koyna at Deshmukhwadi near Helwak in Satara district of Maharashtra, Dam is about 240 km South of Mumbai.

    Type: Rubble concrete dam (Gravity dam)

    Length: 808m

    Height: 103m

    Reservoir:

    Gross storage: 2775.33 Mm³

    Live storage: 2676.6 Mm³

    Spillway: Controlled spillway, Tainter gates

    Benefits:

    Power generation and some irrigation

    Power:

    Stage 1 - 4 units of 70 MW each

    Stage 2 - 4 units of 75 MW each

    Stage 3 - 4 units of 80 MW each

    Stage 4 - 4 units of 250 MW each

    Foot power house 2 x 20 MW each

    Installed capacity: 1960 MW each

     

    9) TUNGBHADRA DAM:

    LOCATION

    This dam is located near Hospet town Karnataka and has been constructed across river Tungbhadra.

    TYPE

    Masonry dam with central spillway section and earth dam and composite dam on the left side

    LENGTH

    2449m (Non overflow 1748 m, spillway 701m)

    HEIGHT

    49m

    RESERVOIR

    Gross storage 3767 Mm^3

    Live storage 3701 Mm^3

    LIVE STORAGE

     

    SPILLWAY

    Ogee type spillway (Gated-33 Nos.)

    BENEFITS

    Irrigation and hydropower

    Power:

    Installed capacity 126 MW

    (14 units of 9 MW each)

     

    Location: This dam is located near Hospet town Karnataka and has been constructed across river Tungbhadra.

    Type: Masonry dam with central spillway section and earth dam and composite dam on the left side.

    Length: 2449m (Non overflow 1748 m, spillway 701m)

    Height: 49m

    Reservoir:

    Gross storage 3767 Mm^3

    Live storage 3701 Mm^3

    Spillway: Ogee type spillway (Gated-33 Nos.)

    Benefits: Irrigation and hydropower

    Power: Installed capacity 126 MW(14 units of 9 MW each)

     

    10) GANDHI SAGAR DAM:

    LOCATION

    Across river Chambal about 8 km downstream of Chaurasigarh fort in Mandsaur district near Jhalawar Road Railway station Madhya pradesh

    TYPE

    Straight gravity stone masonry dam

    LENGTH

    514m (Non overflow 260m, Spillway 254 m)

    HEIGHT

    62.17m

    RESERVOIR

    Gross storage 7746 Mm^3

    Live storage 6920 Mm^3

    LIVE STORAGE

     

    SPILLWAY

    Ogee spillway (Gated - 10 vertical gates)

    BENEFITS

    Irrigation: 222585 ha. (In Madhya Pradesh from Kota Barrage).

    Power: 5 units of 23000 KW each

     

    Location: Across river Chambal about 8 km downstream of Chaurasigarh fort in Mandsaur district near Jhalawar Road Railway station Madhya Pradesh.

    Type: Straight gravity stone masonry dam

    Length: 514 m. (Non overflow 260m, Spillway 254 m)

    Height: 62.17 m

    Reservoir: Gross storage 7746 Mm^3

    Live storage 6920 Mm^3

    Spillway: Ogee spillway (Gated - 10 vertical gates)

    Benefits:

    Irrigation: 222585 ha. (In Madhya Pradesh from Kota Barrage).

    Power: 5 units of 23000 KW each

     

    11) KRISHNARAJA SAGAR DAM:

    LOCATION

    Krishnaraja Sagar dam is located at Krishnaraja Sagara, Karnakata, constructed Cauvery river (tributaries Hemavathy and Lakshamanathirtha)

    TYPE

    Masonry dam

    LENGTH

    2621m

    HEIGHT

    43m

    RESERVOIR

    Gross storage 1368.8 M.cu.m

    Live storage 1244.2 M.cu.m

    LIVE STORAGE

     

    SPILLWAY

    Ogee type (Gates - 152 Lift gates)

    BENEFITS

    Irrigation, hydropower and recreation

     

    Location: Krishnaraja Sagar dam is located at Krishnaraja Sagara, Karnakata, constructed Cauvery river (tributaries Hemavathy and Lakshamanathirtha)

    Type: Masonry dam

    Length: 2621m

    Height: 43m

    Reservoir:

    Gross storage 1368.8 Mm^3

    Live storage 1244.2 Mm^3

    Spillway: Ogee type (Gates - 152 Lift gates)

    Benefits:

    Irrigation, hydropower and recreation.

     

    12) RIHAND DAM:

    LOCATION

    Across river Rihand near village Pipri in Mirzapur district Uttar pradesh 46 km South of its confluence with river Sone

    TYPE

    Straight gravity concrete dam

    LENGTH

    934m

    MAX. HEIGHT

    91.4m

    RESERVOIR

    Gross storage - 10600 Mm^3

    Live storage - 8970 Mm^3

    SPILLWAY

    Ogee type (Gated - 13 Tainter gates)

    BENEFITS

    Power: 6 units of 50 MW each

     

    Location: Across river Rihand near village Pipri in Mirzapur district Uttar pradesh 46 km South of its confluence with river Sone.

    Type: Straight gravity concrete dam

    Length: 934m

    Height: 91.4m

    Reservoir:

    Gross storage - 10600 Mm^3

    Live storage - 8970 Mm^3

    Spillway: Ogee type (Gated - 13 Tainter gates)

    Benefits:

    Power: 6 units of 50 MW each

     

    13) RANA PRATAP SAGAR DAM:

    LOCATION

    Across river Chambal 51.5 km upstream of Kota Barrage and 56.33 km Gandhi Sagar Dam in Madhya Pradesh

    TYPE

    Stone masonry gravity dam

    LENGTH

    1143.29m

    HEIGHT

    53.96m

    RESERVOIR

    Gross storage: 2900 Mm³

    Live storage: 1567 Mm³

    BENEFITS

    Irrigation 0.1214 Mha (in Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan from Kota Barrage)

    Power: 4 units of 43000 KW each

     

    Location: Across river Chambal 51.5 km upstream of Kota Barrage and 56.33 km Gandhi Sagar Dam in Madhya Pradesh.

    Type: Stone masonry gravity dam

    Length: 1143.29m

    Height: 53.96m

    Reservoir:

    Gross storage: 2900 Mm³

    Live storage: 1567 Mm³

    Benefits:

    Irrigation 0.1214 Mha (in Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan from Kota Barrage)

    Power: 4 units of 43000 KW each

     

    14) RANJIT SAGAR DAM:

    LOCATION

    Across river Ravi, Gurdaspur district, Punjab

    TYPE

    Earth core rockfill dam

    LENGTH

    878m

    HEIGHT

    160m

    RESERVOIR

    Gross storage: 3670 Mm³

    Live storage: 2340 Mm³

    SPILLWAY

    Controlled gated ogee (12 Radial gates)

    BENEFITS

    Irrigation, hydropower and flood control.

    Power Installed capacity: 600 MW

    (4 units of 150 MW each)

     

    Location: Across river Ravi, Gurdaspur district, Punjab

    Type: Earth core rockfill dam

    Length: 878m (Non overflow 661 m, spillway 217 m)

    Height: 160 m

    Reservoir:

    Gross storage: 3670 Mm³

    Live storage: 2340 Mm³

    Spillway: Controlled gated ogee (12 Radial gates)

    Benefits:

    Irrigation, hydropower and flood control.

    Power Installed capacity: 600 MW

    (4 units of 150 MW each)

     

    15) RAMGANGA DAM

    LOCATION

    Across river Ramganga 3.2 km upstream near Kalagarh in district Garhwal of Uttarkhand

    TYPE

    Masonry, earth and boulder fill dam

    LENGTH

    743 m (Non overflow 630 m, Spillway 113 m)

    HEIGHT

    128 m (above the lowest point of foundation)

    RESERVOIR

    Gross storage: 2196 Mm³


    Live storage: 1941.5 Mm³

    SPILLWAY

    Chute spillway (5 Tainer gates)

    BENEFITS

    Irrigation: 65900 ha.

    Power: Installed capacity 198000 KW (3 units of 66 MW each)

     

    Location: Across river Ramganga 3.2 km upstream near Kalagarh in district Garhwal of Uttarkhand

    Type: Masonry, earth and boulder fill dam

    Length: 743 m (Non overflow 630 m, Spillway 113 m)

    Height: 128 m (above the lowest point of foundation)

    Reservoir:

    Gross storage: 2196 Mm³

    Live storage: 1941.5 Mm³

    Spillway: Chute spillway (5 Tainer gates)

    Benefits:

    Irrigation: 65900 ha.

    Power: Installed capacity 198000 KW (3 units of 66 MW each)

     

    16) INDIRA SAGAR DAM:

    LOCATION

    This dam is located in Khandwa district of Madhya pradesh and constructed across the river Narmada

    TYPE

    Concrete gravity dam

    LENGTH

    653m

    MAX. HEIGHT

    92m

    RESERVOIR

    Gross storage: 12,200 Mm^3


     Live storage: 9,750 Mm^3

    SPILLWAY

    Overflow Spillway

    BENEFITS

    Power: Installed capacity 1,000 MW

    (8 units of 125 MW each)

    and Irrigation in 1230 km² land

    Indira Sagar Dam has the biggest reservoir in India

     

    Location: This dam is located in Khandwa district of Madhya pradesh and constructed across the river Narmada

    Type: Concrete gravity dam

    Length: 653 m

    Height: 92 m

    Reservoir:

    Gross storage: 12,200 Mm^3

    Live storage: 9,750 Mm^3

    Benefits:

    Power: Installed capacity 1,000 MW (8 units of 125 MW each)

    and Irrigation in 1230 km² land

    Indira Sagar Dam has the biggest reservoir in India

    Comments

    READ ARTICLES:

    VARIOUS METHODS FOR SEDIMENT CONTROL IN ALLUVIAL RIVER

    What is the Importance of Geometric Design of Highway?

    WHAT IS LINEAR PROGRAMMING? | ADVANTAGES AND LIMITATIONS OF LP | APPLICATIONS OF LP

    LINEAR PROGRAMMING - GRAPHICAL METHOD, SIMPLEX METHOD AND BIG-M METHOD

    GROUND WATER HYDROLOGY NUMERICALS | HYDROLOGY AND WATER RESOURCES ENGINEERING